EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH ON FLOATATION THERAPY

Åsenlöf, K., S, Olsson, S. Å., Bood, and T. Norlander. 2007. Case studies on fibromyalgia and burn-out depression using psychotherapy in combination with flotation-REST: Personality development and increased well-being. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 34: 259-271.

Barabasz, A.F., M. Barabasz, R. Dyer, and N. Rather. 1993. Effects of chamber REST, flotation REST and relaxation on transient mood state. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 113-120.

Bood, S. Å., U. Sundequist, A. Kjellgren, G. Nordström and T. Norlander. 2007. Effects of REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on stress related muscle pain: Are 33 flotationsessions more effective than 12 sessions? Personality and Behaviour, 35: 143-156.

Bood, S. Å., U. Sundequist, A. Kjellgren, G. Nordström and T. Norlander. 2005. Effects of flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on stress related muscle pain: What makes the difference in therapy, attention-placebo, or the relaxation response? Pain Research and Mangement, 10: 201-209.

Bood, S.Å.; U. Sundequist, A. Kjellgren, T. Norlander, L. Nordström, K. Nordenström and G. Nordström. 2006. Eliciting the relaxation response with the help of flotation – REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in patients with stress related ailments. International Journal of Stress Management, 13: 154-175.

Jonsson, K., and A. Kjellgren. 2016. Promising effects of treatment with flotation-REST (restricted environmental stimulation technique) as an intervention for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): a randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16: 108 DOI: 1186/s12906-016-1089-x.

Kjellgren, A., F. Lyden and T. Norlander. 2008. Sensory isolation in flotation tanks: altered states of consciousness and effects on well-being. The Qualitative Report 13: 636-656.

Kjellgren, A. and J. Westman. 2014. Beneficial effects of treatment with sensory isolation in flotation-tank as a preventative health-care intervention – a randomized controlled pilot trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14: 417

van Dierendonck, D., and J. Te Nijenhuis. 2005. Flotation restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) as a stress-management tool: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Health, 20:405-412.

SPORTS RECOVERY, INJURY, PAIN AND ARTHRITIS

Barabasz, A.F.; M. Barabasz. 1989. Effects of restricted environmental stimulation: enhancement of hypnotizability for experimental and chronic pain control. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37: 217-231.

Drillera, M.W, and C. K. Argus. 2016. Flotation restricted environmental stimulation therapy and napping on mood state and muscle soreness in elite athletes: A novel recovery strategy? Performance Enhancement & Health, 5: 60-65.

Edebol, H., S.Å. Bood and T. Norlander. 2008. Chronic whiplash-associated disorders and their treatment using flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Techniques). Qualitative Health Research, 18: 480-488.

Hill, S.; M.J.H. Eckett, C. Peterson and E.F. Harkness. 1999. A pilot study to evaluate the effects of floatation spa treatment on patients with osteoarthritis           Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7: 235-238.

Landström, A., S.Å. Bood, A. Kjellgren and T. Norlander. 2007. Treating stress related pain in a clinical sample with flotation-REST: A further report on improvements on pain assessed by the Pain Area Inventory (PAI). Social Behaviour and Personality, 35: 1279-1280.

Morgan P.M. 2013 The acute effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique on recovery from maximal eccentric exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 27: 3467-3474.

Turner J. Jr., A. Deleon, C. Gibson and T.H. Fine. 1993. Effects of flotation REST on range motion, grip strength and pain in rheumatoid arthritis. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 297-306.

Wallbaum, A.B.; R. Rzewnicki, H. Steele, P. Suedfeld. 1991. Progressive muscle relaxation and restricted environmental stimulation therapy for chronic tension headache: A pilot study. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 38: 33-39.

CARDIAC, IMMUNE AND GENERAL HEALTH

Caromano, F.A., R.K. Alaiti, F.L. dos Santos, A.A. Lima, L. Nascimento, F.M. Favero, L.C. de Abreu, C. de Oliveira Souza, R. Escórcio, M.C. Artilheiro, J.C. Frutuoso, M. Callil Voos. 2015. Effects of modified Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy on relaxation, heart rate, blood pressure and flexibility. International Archives of Medicine, 8(164). DOI: 10.3823/1763.

Fine, T.H., and J.W. Turner Jr. 1982. The effect of brief restricted environmental stimulation in the treatment of essential hypertension. Behaviour Research and Therapy 20: 567-570.

Ruzyla-Smith P. & A. Barabasz. 1993. Effects of flotation REST on the immune response: T-cells, B-cells, helper and suppressor cells. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives, A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 223-238

Steel G. 1993. Relaxed and alert: patterns of T-wave amplitude and heart rate in a REST environment. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 249-260.

Turner J. Jr., and T.H. Fine. 1993. The physiological effects of flotation REST. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 215-222.

Turner, J. Jr., and T. Fine. 1983. Effects of relaxation associated with brief restricted environmental stimulation therapy (REST) on plasma cortisol, ACTH, and LH. Biofeedback Self Regulation, 8: 115-126.

Turner J. Jr., W. Gerard, J. Hyland., P. Nieland and T. Fine. 1993. Effects of wet and dry flotation REST on blood pressure and plasma cortisol. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 239-248.

SPORTS AND CREATIVE PERFORMANCE

Atkinson, R. 1993. Short-term exposure to REST: enhancement performance on a signal-detection task. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 93-100.

Barabasz, A., M. Barabasz and J. Bauman. 1993. Restricted environmental stimulation technique improves human performance: rifle marksmanship. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76: 867-873.

Lee, A. B., and J.Hewitt. 1987. Using visual imagery in a flotation tank to improve gymnastic performance and reduce physical symptoms. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 8: 223-230.

McAleney P.J, A. Barabasz and M. Barabasz. 1990. Effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation on intercollegiate tennis performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71: 1023-1028.

Melchiori L.G., and A.F. Barabasz A.F. 1990. Effects of Flotation REST on Simulated Instrument Flight Performance. In Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Theoretical and Empirical Developments in Flotation REST. Eds P. Suedfeld, J. Turner, T. Fine, Springer-Verlag: New York, pp. 135-142.

Norlander, T., H. Bergman and T. Archer. 1999. Primary process in competitive archery performance: Effects of flotation REST. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11: 194-209.

Richardson S. 1998. Imagery, progressive muscle relaxation and restricted environmental stimulation: enhancing mental training and rowing ergometer performance through flotation REST Masters Thesis, University of British Columbia. DOI: 10.14288/1.0088557.

Suedfeld, P., and T. Bruno. 1990. Flotation REST and imagery in the improvement of athletic performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 12: 82-85.

Suedfeld, P., D.E. Collier and B.D.G. Hartnett. 1993. Enhancing perceptual-motor accuracy through floatation REST. The Sport Psychologist, 7: 151-159.

Vartanian, O., and P. Suedfeld. 2011. The Effect of the flotation version of restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) on jazz improvisation. Music and Medicine, 3:234-238.

Wagaman J., A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz. 1991. Flotation REST and imagery in the improvement of collegiate basketball performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1991: 119-122.

BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION

Adams H. 1988. REST arousability and the nature of alcohol and substance abuse. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 5: 77-81.

Barabasz, M. 1993. REST: a key facilitator in the treatment of eating disorders. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp.121-126.

Barabasz M., A. Barabasz and R. Dyer. 1993. Chamber REST reduces alcohol consumption: 3, 6, 12, and 24 hour sessions. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 163-173.

Barabasz M., and A. Barabasz. 1993. Treatment of trichotillomania and smoking with hypnosis and REST. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 145-156.

Borrie, R.A. 1990. The use of restricted environmental stimulation therapy in treating addictive behaviors. International Journal on Addiction, 91: 995-1015.

Borrie, R.A., and P. Suedfeld. 1980. Restricted environmental stimulation therapy in a weight reduction program. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 3:147-161.

Cooper, G.D., H.B. Adams, and J.C. Scott. 1988. Studies in REST I: reduced environmental stimulation therapy and reduced alcohol consumption. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 5: 61-68.

DiRito D. 1993. Motivational factors in alcohol consumption: extending Hull’s Model. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp.157-162.

Fine T.H., J. Bruno and M. Nestor. 1985. Flotation REST and smoking cessation: a preliminary report. Health and Clinical Psychology, selected/revised papers 4:261-264.

Suedfeld, P. 1990. Restricted Environmental Stimulation and Smoking Cessation: A 15-Year Progress Report. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25: 861-88.

CREATIVITY ENHANCEMENT

Forgays, D.G., and D.K. Forgays. 1992. Creativity enhancement through flotation isolation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12: 329-335.

Norlander, T., H. Bergman and T. Archer, T.1990. Effects of flotation REST on creative problem solving and originality. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18: 399-408.

Suedfeld, P., J. Metcalfe, and S. Bluck. 1987. Enhancement of scientific creativity by flotation REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique). Journal of Environmental Psychology, 7: 219-231.

OTHER

Barabasz, A. F. 1982. Restricted environmental stimulation and the enhancement of hypnotizability: pain, EEG alpha, skin conductance and temperature responses. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30: 147-166.

Borrie R., Dana J., Perry S., & Friedman M. 1993. Flotation REST, physical therapy and psychological intervention in the treatment of physical disabilities. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 289-296.

Harrison J., and A. Barabasz. 1993. REST as a treatment for children with autism. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 269-280.

Jessen W. 1993. The effects of consecutive floats and their timing on premenstrual syndrome. In Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. Eds A.F. Barabasz and M. Barabasz, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 281-288.

Kjellgren, A. 2003. The experience of flotation-REST: Consciousness, Creativity, Subjective Stress and Pain. Doctoral Thesis, Karlstad University, Sweden.

Suedfeld P., and G. Schwartz. 1980. Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) as a treatment for autistic children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 4: 196-201.

Experience The Benefits